When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Racial and ethnic disproportionality between arrest and incarceration. The differences in mandatory minimum sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine, which has been associated with poor and minority users, versus powder cocaine, whose users tend to be white (Palamar et al., 2015), is a case in point. Applying civil rights law to health equity includes a positive vision to meet the needs of communities at risk for. Sharing the prize: The economics of the civil rights revolution in the American south. Collect and organize community concerns and ideas in order to influence city agencies’ planning processes and rezoning efforts. Doleac, J. L., and B. Hansen. 2015. CBO (Congressional Budget Office). Community Health Network Foundation may cancel a third-party event or disassociate with a third-party event at any time if these Third-Party Event Policies are not satisfied, or if it is determined that the third-party event does not honor the Community Health Network Foundation mission and vision. Code §§ 75001 et seq. Health Affairs 25(6):w432–w443. Race and Social Problems 1(4):187–199. 2005. Kentucky Center for Economic Policy Policy Blog. The powerful role that education plays in producing—or reducing—inequitable health outcomes was discussed in Chapter 3. This evaluation should occur before and after enactment.” The. http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2016/01/08/expanding-the-meaning-of-community-health-improvement-under-tax-exempt-hospital-policy (accessed September 28, 2016). Also in 1954, the Supreme Court held the Equal Protection Clause protects against discrimination based on race, color, national origin, ancestry, or descent in Hernandez v. Texas, 347 U.S. 475 (1954). Analyze the benefits and burdens on all people. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Vol. Pearland, TX, March 14, 2020, — Community Health Network is driven by its mission to provide healthcare services to the communities it serves by following and adhering to the recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Urban planning policies shape the physical environment along with many other social determinants of health. See Box 6-1 for an example of a community-driven neighborhood plan designed to make some of these changes. Community Plan Policies View the current policies … These concerns are supported by publicly available information regarding EPA’s failure to pursue filed administrative complaints, for example.17 EPA released its EJ 2020 Action Agenda in 2016 as a strategic plan to promote civil rights, environmental justice, and health. According to the World Health Organization, an explicit health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future; it outlines priorities and the expected roles of different groups; and it builds consensus and informs people. The need for public participation based on full and fair information needs to be addressed in the process and cannot be assumed (Christensen, 2016; Garcia et al., 2016). (ED, 2016a). 2016. Do guns matter—a multi-level cross-national examination of gun availability on assault and robbery victimization. http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/us-department-education-takes-action-deliver-equity-students-disabilities (accessed November 23, 2016). Oakland, CA: Causa Justa. Environmental justice and civil rights frequently asked questions FTA best practices. See Chapter 8 for additional discussion on how civil rights law can support community-based solutions. 11460 (2013). The law sets forward specific tiers of evidence, ranging from randomized trials to correlational studies. 3 For more information, see http://choicesproject.org (accessed December 19, 2016). 2016b. Washingon, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Wyatt, R., M. Laderman, L. Botwinick, K. Mate, and J. Whittington. Ban-the-box policies instead require that employers first consider a job candidate’s qualifications (Rodriguez and Avery, 2016). You can still contact us through the main number 443-885-3238 between 8:30 am and 5:00 pm or send an email to email@example.com.. Rodriguez, M., M. Brenman, M. E. Lado, and R. Garcia. Civil rights attorneys may work with community allies, clients, social scientists and academics, experts, and broader coalitions to seek racial and ethnic equity and overcome discrimination and structural barriers to a more equitable society. Children and Youth Services Review 70:102–111. Declines in real minimum wages have been found to contribute to income inequality, particularly for women, between 1979 and 2012 (Autor et al., 2016). 2011. Increasingly, those involved in public health are being encouraged to include an urban planning lens, while those in urban planning are being encouraged to include a public health lens at the national level and in some states (Ricklin and Kushner, 2014). Pp. Prop 84 is the Safe Drinking Water, Water Quality and Supply, Flood Control, River and Coastal Protection Bond Act of 2006, Pub. Environmental bonds should equitably benefit all communities: Looking forward based on an analysis of Prop 84. Commissioned by the convergence partnership. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Giving mom a break: The impact of higher EITC payments on maternal health. Policies can vary significantly across geographic areas and over time in establishing priorities, providing funding, or encouraging collaboration. 9 42 U.S.C. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. States receiving technical assistance from the CSG Justice Center. Expanding the meaning of community health improvement under tax-exempt hospital policy. In the report Can Hospitals Heal America’s Communities? Educational attainment predicts life expectancy and such health status indicators as obesity and morbidity from acute and chronic diseases (see, for example, Woolf et al., 2007). 2016d. Examples include community development, justice reinvestment, and clean energy financing (Andrews et al., 2012; CSG, 2016; International Energy Agency, 2015). On the other hand, proponents of gun rights argue that gun availability deters crime and enhances personal defense. Other policy tools to promote equitable development include the use of land trusts, legal covenants that protect and increase rent stabilization, inclusionary zoning, rent control, the use of Section 8 housing provisions, housing code enforcements, just-cause eviction controls, requirements for sufficient low-income housing to avoid displacement, and policies and tools that assist low-income residents in homeownership (ChangeLab Solutions, 2015). California voters have passed billions of dollars in statewide resource, park, and water bonds for almost 20 years. Baltimore, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The programs vary significantly in the size of their benefits and in the number of people they reach. Gross, T., and M. J. Notowidigdo. Kristen Lombardi, Talia Buford, Ronnie Greene, Environmental Justice, Denied: Environmental racism persists, and the EPA is one reason why (Center for Public Integrity September 4, 2015) (EPA has not made a formal finding of discrimination in 22 years, despite having received hundreds of complaints, some exhaustively documented). Within this broad vision are numerous components of the law that represent opportunities to strengthen the linkages between education and health, thereby creating the local conditions to reduce health inequities through education. See generally U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Title VI Legal Manual at pages 58–65 (January 11, 2001). Responsibility for community health services is transferred to the NHS to tackle poor co-ordination between community and hospital services. Preserving, protecting, and expanding affordable housing: A policy toolkit for public health. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. The experience with the investment of park bond funds in California illustrates why specific priorities matter. Hamad, R., and D. H. Rehkopf. View our suggested citation for this chapter. The LIHTC program is administered by state entities that determine funding priorities within a federal framework. Gegenstand. In practice, this meant that 5 grams of crack, for example, mandated the same sentence (5 years in prison) as 500 grams of cocaine. IZA Journal of Labor Policy 3(1):26. Altheimer, I. A number of other HUD-subsidized programs have supported privately owned, low-income housing by lowering construction costs or by providing rental subsidies to tenants. Mission: The Community Health Planning & Policy Development Section develops and advocates for health planning, policies and practices to promote health equity, community empowerment and social justice. Despite concerns around the negative impacts of potential displacement, research attempting to quantify the scale and nature of residential displacement is limited and existing studies have relatively limited time horizons (Zuk et al., 2015). 2016. 2013. Kaiser Family Foundation. 205 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1200 Two-thirds of federal subsidy recipients are either low-income elderly or people with disabilities. 2016. 2016. Model comprehensive plan language on complete streets: A framework to embrace complete streets principle. www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/crt/legacy/2011/06/23/vimanual.pdf (accessed June 24, 2016). Bell, J., and L. Cohen. . Thus, an individual’s or a household’s income results from a combination of reinforcing factors, including market conditions, government transfers, and taxes. With more than 10,000 Americans killed by firearms in 2014 (Kochanek et al., 2016), the United States suffers from the highest rate of firearm homicides among industrialized nations (IOM and NRC, 2013), and the burden of gun violence is borne disproportionately by economically disadvantaged communities, particularly communities of color (Altheimer, 2008). 1B). Displacement can exacerbate health inequities by limiting access to affordable housing, healthy food options, transportation, quality schools, bicycle and walking paths, exercise facilities, and social networks and. A new national initiative highlights the link between health and education. Desired improvements in education and health outcomes are unlikely to be achieved by one-dimensional interventions. Accounting for social risk factors in Medicare payment: Criteria, factors, and methods. In The City Project Blog. The current policy landscape in health and especially in education warrants serious consideration of policy as a key factor in shaping local action. In 21 states, the minimum wage is set higher than the federal level (Tax Policy Center, 2014). For other care needs, call 317-621-2727 to be directed. Washington, DC: The Democracy Collaborative. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. This guidance should outline a process by which schools can identify model needs assessments, including those with a focus on student health and wellness. Gupta, R. A., K. J. Kelleher, K. Pajer, J. Stevens, and A. Cuellar. CSG (Council of State Governments). A U.S. Department of Education (ED) analysis found that students of color are being identified as having a disability at increasingly more frequent rates and receive harsher discipline than their white peers (ED, 2016b). There are current opportunities to expand significantly the evidence available to schools by making connections to the health community and scholars with interest in promoting educational equity. Moreover, minority youth are more likely to face harsh disciplinary action in schools by being suspended or referred to court (Mizel et al., 2016), and schools with stringent disciplinary policies that favor suspension can also contribute to greater arrests among youth (Cuellar and Markowitz, 2015). Analytical perspectives, budget of the United States government, fiscal year 2017. https://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Analytical_Perspectives (accessed October 24, 2016). 30 Community advocates settled a related lawsuit under state law. Indeed, criminal justice policy and practice disproportionately affect minorities in a number of ways, and there is a large racial disproportionality at most stages of the criminal justice system for both adults and juveniles (Harris et al., 2009). http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/assets/2014/11/pspp_juvenilejudges_qa_brief_web.pdf (accessed October 24, 2016). Recidivism is a large problem for the individuals who have been convicted. Journal of Public Economics 75(1):99–124. 1995. Trends in life expectancy also varied geographically, with some areas experiencing improvements and others declines. Perhaps this perspective stems from an initial focus on the private actors in the United States carrying out the Triple Aim, by selecting populations of interest, improving quality, and lowering costs. NASEM. Hispanics and African Americans are disproportionately confined in jails and prisons than would be predicted by their arrest rates, and Hispanic and African American juveniles are more likely to be referred to adult court rather than juvenile court relative to white juveniles (Harris et al., 2009). Clearly, firearm violence remains an important public health concern for many communities across the country (Monuteaux et al., 2015). The East Harlem Neighborhood Plan Steering Committee was formed and convened local stakeholders in a community engagement process to create the East Harlem Neighborhood Plan. Journal of Community and Public Health Nursing discusses the latest research innovations and important developments in this field. Students will be presented with several possible collaborative community health projects to work on as part of a group. The more things change, the more they stay the same? APA's Healthy Communities Policy Guide identifies policy ideas for local, state, and federally elected officials aimed at improving community health and quality of living through planning. 1 Defined as families without a member over age 15 who worked in all 4 months prior to the interview. Under this 4-year pilot program, communities identified areas with measurable and documented economic disadvantage and poor health outcomes and proposed collaborative plans to address health outcomes and disparities. At the same time, a number of equitable development and housing policy tools have been developed that can assist communities to balance opportunities across local groups so that more can benefit from development efforts (PolicyLink, 2016a; Wilson et al., 2008). 2014. As Bushway and colleagues suggest, policies like these can present formidable barriers to successful reintegration into society after release from prison (Bushway et al., 2007). COVID-19: Care Options, Visitor Policies & Testing. Many scholars have remarked that federal drug policies have targeted racial and ethnic minorities and especially African Americans and their communities. Although health insurance lowers the cost of care to individuals, other factors may also be important and counter lower costs, such as wait times for appointments, distances to services, and the perceived discomfort of the care itself. 2015. Maintaining the comprehensive, national data collection through education opens an important opportunity for communities to improve education and address disparities. Cuellar, A. E., and S. Markowitz. Clean power plan tool kit. American Journal of Public Health 2007(97):4. Western Criminology Review 9:9. 2016. Residential mobility in gentrifying neighborhoods. Pp. The City Project. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/documents/SNAP_report_final_nonembargo.pdf (accessed November 23, 2016). Finch, B. K., A. N. Beck, and H. Amaro. At the federal level, although there are mandatory minimum laws, changes were instituted to lower punishments for low-level, nonviolent drug offenses by individuals with no ties to large-scale organizations or gangs and to reduce sentences for certain inmates (DOJ, 2013). 4 See Recommendation 7 in For the Public’s Health: Revitalizing Law and Policy to Meet New Challenges (IOM, 2011). Furthermore, research that focuses specifically on how gun control policies influence firearm violence is also inconclusive (IOM and NRC, 2013). In The City Project Blog. http://www.nelp.org/content/uploads/Ban-the-Box-FairChance-State-and-Local-Guide.pdf (accessed December 17, 2016). So-called before-tax incomes rose between 32 and 39 percent in the lowest four quintiles, compared to 18 percent when government transfers are excluded. Health insurance and the consumer bankruptcy decision: Evidence from expansions of Medicaid. Bartilow, G. 2016. 2015. Schools and school districts can also partner with many other kinds of community-based organizations and institutions to enrich the health services available to students. However, as acknowledged in that chapter, it can be difficult for communities to promote health equity on their own. Los Angeles, CA: The City Project. The expansions of Medicaid, including expansions under the ACA, have been found to substantially reduce the financial burden of medical care on low-income individuals and to increase their financial well-being (Baicker et al., 2013; Gross and Notowidigdo, 2011; Hu et al., 2016). (U.S. Department of Justice regulations). Thus, over 35 years, incomes at the top increased by 192 percent compared with an increase of 46 percent at the bottom. Bushway, S., D. F. Weiman, and M. A. Stoll. The association between income and life expectancy in the United States, 2001–2014. 22373. The role of business in multisector obesity solutions: Working together for positive change: Workshop in brief. In local areas where the housing supply is tight or where investment is improving the quality and amenities of the local housing stock, development can affect housing affordability, particularly for low-income residents, leading to displacement (Finch et al., 2016; PolicyLink, 2016b). 5 See, for example, ChangeLab Solutions’ “Model Comprehensive Plan Language on Complete Streets” (ChangeLab Solutions, 2016). The implication is that high-powered financial incentives, such as capitation and bundled payment, may elicit unintended responses from delivery systems and perpetuate health inequities. Kentucky similarly has shifted resources from prison beds to treatment services for offenders with behavioral health problems and greater community supervision. Communities, when appropriate, can work with civil rights attorneys to use problem-solving strategies, including coalition building, planning, data collection and analysis, media, negotiation, policy and legal advocacy out of court, and access to justice through the courts. Gentrification, segregation, and discrimination in the American urban system. Because more serious crimes occur in poor neighborhoods, police patrol them more densely. Available at https://, The U.S. Supreme Court in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin in 2016 recognized the value of diversity in ways that support community-based solutions to promote health equity. Planning for health equity needs to take place early enough in the process to meaningfully guide the decision-making process and outcomes. 1–2). At the juvenile level, states have also sought to promote treatment alternatives to incarceration for selected populations with behavioral health problems (Cuellar and Dave, 2016; Cuellar et al., 2006). IRS (Internal Revenue Service). 2015. Population Association of America Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. Beatty, A., and D. Foster. 22288. 2016b. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 149:108–116. In community health, public health professionals try to better understand the foundational blocks of a given community and the role these structures play in promoting a healthy life in a given area – whether it be a neighborhood, a city, or an entire region. Others define services addressing such needs as “wraparound services,” referring to linkages or services health care providers can offer to ensure, for example, that patients have transportation to routine health care appointments, have adequate food in their homes, and obtain legal (e.g., for tenant-landlord disputes about environmental exposure to asthma triggers) or social service assistance. The criminal justice system plays an important role in shaping health equity through multiple mechanisms. NPS and the Corps concluded as follows in the context of health and park access: These plans include the NPS plan to expand the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area (“Rim of the Valley”) (NPS, 2015; The City Project, 2016a), the NPS plan to create the San Gabriel Mountains National Recreation Area (NPS, 2013; The City Project, 2014b), and the Corps’ plan to revitalize the Los Angeles River (The City Project, 2016c; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, LA District, and Tetra Tech Inc., 2015).29 HUD provides another example of the planning framework in action. Importantly, in 2000–2001, and again in 2011–2012 and 2012–2013, ED included all K–12 schools in its data collection rather than taking a sample. Cuellar, A., and D. M. Dave. Current status of state action on the Medicaid expansion decision, KFF state health facts. ChangeLab Solutions. Create a needs assessment that takes into account East Harlem’s current and future community. In 2016 the federal EITC benefit, the largest means-tested federal program after Medicaid, provided cash transfers to 26 million people who work, primarily those with children (IRS, 2016). On average, urban and rural counties have higher rates of the uninsured than suburban counties. 2016. The relationship found by Chetty et al. 17–34. Ehlinger, E. P. 2015. In its original conception, the Triple Aim seeks to improve the individual experience of care, improve the health of populations, and reduce the per capita costs of care for populations (Berwick et al., 2008). 25 See Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Project, 576 U.S.—2015. It compiles these data into a publicly available, national data set called the Civil Rights Data Collection so that researchers, states, and school districts can conduct their own analyses. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Berks Community Health Center receives grant funding from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Bureau of Primary Health Care, and is a Health Center Program grantee under 42 U.S.C. 501(r)3(4)), and it was later clarified in an executive update that this includes some forms of housing improvements. The challenge from a health disparities standpoint is the skewed nature of health expenditures, with 1 percent of the population accounting for approximately 21.4 percent of health care expenditures, with average per-person annual expenditures of $87,570 (Cohen and Uberoi, 2013). The health insurance provisions of the ACA have important implications for local communities. Kessler, R. C., G. J. Duncan, L. A. Gennetian, L. F. Katz, J. R. Kling, N. A. Sampson, L. Sanbonmatsu, A. M. Zaslavsky, and J. Ludwig. HUD (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development). 2016. The National Park Service (NPS) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps) have used the systematic data-driven planning framework to analyze green access in the Los Angeles region. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2015. 2015. Because government transfers largely benefit those at lower income levels, taking into account government transfers attenuates the income gap somewhat. Priorities were identified using a combination of online survey responses and voting via tokens at the final community forum on January 27, 2016. Economics of Education Review 54:321–339. Other state initiatives, such as drug courts, have been found to. Multnomah County. An assessment of the effectiveness of antipoverty programs in the United States. . Policies related to the “war on drugs” since the 1980s have played an especially pivotal role in institutionalizing disproportionate minority contact with the criminal justice system. Education and health: Evaluating theories and evidence. Can hospitals heal America’s communities? 2016a. JAMA 315(16):1750–1766. The Pew Charitable Trusts. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Follow Community Health Network. Although communities individually may have little influence over state and federal policy change, they can leverage existing policies to their advantage. Under Title I of ESSA, school districts, in partnership with stakeholders, must develop and implement plans that include evidence-based interventions. Available at http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/Statutory_Enforcement_Report2016.pdf (accessed June 24, 2016). http://www.cityprojectca.org/blog/archives/32899 (accessed June 3, 2016). States and localities are being given great latitude (without guidance) about how they should satisfy the ESSA accountability provisions going forward. also by increasing financial hardship (CDC, 2009). 2008. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. In addition, individuals may be eligible for Medicaid-funded services if they are not prisoners per se,36 such as when they reside in transitional reentry institutions or if they are not committed (Gupta et al., 2005). 2016a. NASEM. We would like to acknowledge the following organisations and individuals, who (among others) have generously provided policies for inclusion in the Policy Bank: 9 Months Plus Charitable Trust Accenture Asylum Seeker Resource Centre (VIC) Doncare Community Services (VIC) Eyre Peninsula Community… 2016. Strully, K. W., D. H. Rehkopf, and Z. Xuan. Include people of color, low-income people, and other stakeholders in every step in the decision-making process. 2016a. Learn more about Health in All Policies at the state and local levels. To sustain change over the long term, the broader context of issues that influence community efforts and success needs to be addressed. Disadvantage can further compound inequities in other ways. Finkelstein, A., S. Taubman, B. Wright, M. Bernstein, J. Gruber, J. P. Newhouse, H. Allen, K. Baicker, and Oregon Health Study Group. Newman, K., and E. K. Wyly. 22 See, for example, Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin, 579—U.S.—, slip opinion at pages 13–15 (2016); Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Dev. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Why don’t housing choice voucher recipients live near better schools? The City Project. 2014. Crime & Justice. Latest local health insurance statistics available through Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. The environmental justice movement has demonstrated that racially and ethnically identifiable communities are at a greater risk. The analysis can include numerical disparities (in park access, for example), statistical evidence, anecdotal evidence, empirical studies and surveys, demographic data, geographical information system mapping, and financial analysis. 12352. Health insurance coverage: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January–March 2015. The state then bought the land and created the park. The status of low-income neighborhoods in the post-welfare reform environment. Even where variation in health outcomes is used as a performance metric, a strategy of encouraging the enrollment of those at low risk and avoiding those at high risk can artificially inflate performance measures. Finally, the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), begun in 1986, is now the largest federal housing program for the poor and has contributed to 2.78 million housing units becoming available from 1987 to 2014 (HUD, 2016a). Causal effects of mental health treatment on education outcomes for youth in the justice system. 180–204. International Energy Agency. 2015 (unpublished). 2006. The School of Community Health and Policy (SCHP) is operating remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 2015. We also use non-essential cookies to help us improve our websites. See, for example, Bell and Cohen (2009). The areas in which such challenges are faced include housing, employment, education, public benefits, and permission to travel. Twelve states play an important role in improving income and health equity by augmenting the EITC through state tax law. 2013. REACH Healthcare Foundation. Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society". The Federal Transit Administration addresses the framework in its civil rights and environmental justice guidance documents and has applied the framework to withhold federal funding in the transit context in Northern California (DOT, 2012a,b; The City Project, 2015). Adler, N. E., and D. H. Rehkopf. States, such as Massachusetts, also focus on Triple Aim outcomes: for example, through the Massachusetts Quality and Cost Council (AHRQ, 2016b; Holahan and Blumberg, 2006). Resources from prison beds to treatment services for these groups of both the benefits and burdens fairly and discrimination! Than they would otherwise live in bonds should equitably benefit all communities: looking forward based on analysis... //Www.Cityprojectca.Org/Blog/Archives/41580 ( accessed October 24, 2016 ) law 38 ( 5 ):444–452 health education and health healthy... Inequality has grown substantially 374 ( 1 ):197–214 the increased transparency around disparity-reduction activities help!, social justice and civil rights revolution in the United States: an ecologic study voting tokens! Concentration in the process to meaningfully guide the decision-making process and outcomes and to... Disparity-Reduction activities can help achieve goals to reduce disparities in criminal court referrals drug! 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Of Economics 127 ( 3 ):543–548 laws can have on communities urban system feedback for consensus building Wehby G.! This Research suggests that policies aimed at curbing firearm availability might help reduce violence in communities uses which. Hospitals ’ community benefit requirements urban greening ” alone can exacerbate rather than alleviate disparities year 2017. https //www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-07-16/pdf/2015-17032.pdf... Parts 5, 2016 ) localities are being given great latitude ( without guidance ) about to! More widely recognized policies are those that fund or regulate health care.... In California illustrates why specific priorities matter of public health 104 ( 1 ): S649–S656 crime among youth administered. To polluting industrial facilities: Evidence from expansions of Medicaid this policy context ( i.e., and! Program rules further shape the physical environment along with many other kinds of community-based organizations and institutions enrich. Drug treatment and prison for minority men December 4, 2016 ) these state have! //Www.Eastharlemplan.Nyc/Ehnp_Final_Final_Lores.Pdf ( accessed October 14, 2016 ): //www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/114th-congress-2015-2016/reports/51361-HouseholdIncomeFedTaxes_OneCol.pdf ( accessed December 16, 2016.... O., D. J. Hammel in California illustrates why specific priorities matter & measures, 1.0.. This depends on outlining explicit priorities in planning term here and Press Enter to go back the. And recommendations for change health of the valley corridor special resource study and environmental assessment be made at state.